The ancient location at the area of Kot Diji (Urdu: کوٹ ڈیجی) was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization. The occupation of this location is attested already at the time period of 3300 BCE. The remnants contains 2 parts; the citadel place on high ground (about 12 m), and outer area. The Pakistan Department of Archaeology excavated at Kot Diji in the years 1955 and 1957.
Situated about 22 kilometers south of the city Khairpur in Sindh, Pakistan. It is on the side of east bank of the Indus opposite Mohenjo-daro.
The location is located at the foot of the Rohri Hills where a fort (Kot Diji Fort) was constricted around the year of 1790 by Talpur dynasty ruler of Upper Sindh, Mir Suhrab who reigned from the time period of 1783 to 1830 AD. This fort constructed on the ridge of a steep narrow hill is well preserved.
Early Harappan towns (4000–3000 BCE)
The development of these farming communities in several parts of the province Baluchistan and Lower Sind, finally led to urbanization. The initial fortified town to date is discovered at Rehman Dheri, dated on the year of 4000 BCE in NWFP close to River Zhob Valley. Other fortified towns found to date are at the area of Amri (3600–3300 BCE) and Kot Diji in Sindh and at Kalibangan(3000 BCE), India at the Hakra River.
Kot Diji culture (3300–2600 BCE)
The location covers 2.6 ha. The initial occupation of this location is termed ‘Kot Dijian’, which is pre-Harappan, or early formative Harappan.
At the earliest layer, Kot Diji I (2605 BC), copper and bronze were not utilized.
The houses and fortifications were made from the proposed unbaked mud-bricks. Lithic material, like leaf-shaped chert arrowheads, shows parallels with Mundigak layers II-IV. The pottery appears to anticipate Harappan Ware.
Later, bronze was utilized, but only for personal ornaments. Also, potters wheel was already utilized.
The Early Harappan phase contains 2 clearly defined areas.
Progress towards Harappa Phase
Glazed steatite beads were made. There was a clear transformation from the earlier Ravi pottery to what is usually termed to as Kot Diji pottery. Red slip and black painted designs replaced polychrome decorations of the Ravi Phase. Then, there was a steady transformation into what is usually called as Harappa Phase pottery.
Early Indus script may have seemed at Kot Diji on pottery and on a sealing. The utilization of inscribed seals and the standardization of weights may have appeared during the Kot Diji period.
Late Kot-Diji kind pots were discovered as far as Burzahom in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
There are clear signs of massive burning of over the entire location, involving both the lower habitation area and the high mound (the fortified town), which were also analyzed at other Early Harappan sites: Period III at Gumla, Period II at Amri, Period ID at Naushero. Signs of cleavage were observed at Early Harappan phase Period I at Kalibangan. The cause of the disruptions and/or abandonment of these locations toward the end of the Early Harappan phase is still unexplained.
Rani Kot (600-1843 AD)
In accordance to legends, the wall existed during Umayyad rule and later under the Abbasid rule. The Soomro tribe inhabited the castle and later the Samma tribe positioned large infantry formations inside the fort.
The Mughal Emirs armed the walls of the castle with cannons and muskets. They were the 1st to renovate the whole complex. The Kalhora tribe later acquired control of the fort, and finally the Talpurs observed the fort as a strategic asset especially during the reign of Mir Fatih Ali Khan Talpur, until they were defeated and overthrown by the British Empire, in the year of 1843 AD.